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Offline tana

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GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA~~~
« on: March 22, 2007, 02:09:47 AM »
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                                           KALPANA CHAWLA


      On February 1, 2003, the Columbian space shuttle STS ? 107 exploded as it entered the earth?s atmosphere, perishing the entire crew of six. Among them was the young Indian-born American astronaut, Kalpana Chawla. A girl who had always dreamt of the moon and the stars had herself become a star. Not only did she achieve her dreams but she also led her life with the highest sense of values and purpose in every respect. Her life history is the greatest inspiration for the youths of today.


    Humble beginnings

    Kalpana Chawla was born in India's Karnal district of Haryana. Her parents had seen great hardships and were in dire straits during partition but had struggled to pull themselves up. However, they were able to provide good education to Kalpana and her two siblings.


    In everything that Kalpana did, she broke stereotypes. She was the only girl at that time to join the aeronautical engineering stream at the Punjab Engineering College. She fought and overcame opposition from her parents and migrated to USA for further studies. Here, she joined the University of Texas to pursue her Masters and later, University of Boulder, Colorado for her doctorate. This was admirable, since few children at such a young age are so clear-minded about their ambitions. Furthermore, even fewer have the will to pursue them with such single-minded dedication that Kalpana did...

    Global citizen

    Kalpana?s sights were so completely focused on her goals that even her small town trappings were no constraint for her. She crossed continents and high seas to an alien culture. She was truly a global citizen, an earth person who wanted to explore her neighbourhood, the outer space!

    The ultimate tribute

    In her memory, the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. A.B.Vajpayee renamed the weather satellite launched in 2002, Metstat as Kalpana-1. Deep Purple scripted and sang, ?Contact Lost? as a tribute to her. These and many such small gestures round the world have kept her memory alive. But the real tribute, the youngsters can pay her, is to enliven the ?Kalpanas? (imagination) in them.

    JAI SAI RAM !!!
    « Last Edit: November 16, 2007, 10:44:12 PM by tana »
    "लोका समस्ता सुखिनो भवन्तुः
    ॐ शन्तिः शन्तिः शन्तिः"

    " Loka Samasta Sukino Bhavantu
    Aum ShantiH ShantiH ShantiH"~~~

    May all the worlds be happy. May all the beings be happy.
    May none suffer from grief or sorrow. May peace be to all~~~

    Offline tana

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    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA
    « Reply #1 on: March 24, 2007, 12:32:59 AM »
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                                  MOTHER TERESA

    About 20 years before India gained its freedom, Christian missionaries from Yugoslavia came to India to render humanitarian services. They were extremely affected by the conditions of poverty rampant in India and so invited people from their country to serve here. Amongst these was a special girl called Agnes Goxa Bojaxiu, who is today known as Mother Teresa.
     

    Arrival In India

    Agnes was born on August 27, 1910 and was just 19 years when she came to Calcutta on January 6, 1929. And she never left this country. Her aim in life was to serve the sick and the poor and she dedicated her full life towards this purpose. She would roam the dangerous dark and dirty streets of Calcutta at night, covering the cold and offering food and shelter to the poor.  When she first arrived in Calcutta, she had just Rs. 5.00, and was helped by a priest. She lived in a small room for 9 years, where she nursed the ill back to health. Compassion, dignity and sympathy marked her every action.
     

    Mission Of Charity

    Through her efforts she managed to open several institutions to help the downtrodden e.g. 'Missionaries of Charity', ' Nirmal Hriday', and 'Shishu Bhavan' whish houses the mentally and physically challenged children.  Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and the Bharat Ratna in 1980. Besides these she also received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Peace  (1972), Ramon Magsaysay Award (1962) and the Templeton Foundation Award (1973).  As the Mother- General of the Missionaries of Charity, Mother Teresa has a thousand Missionary institutions working under her.

    Despite all the public acclaim, national and international honours, mother Teresa remained humble, kind and generous till the end. The Florence Nightingale of India passed away in September 1997.

    JAI SAI RAM !!!
    "लोका समस्ता सुखिनो भवन्तुः
    ॐ शन्तिः शन्तिः शन्तिः"

    " Loka Samasta Sukino Bhavantu
    Aum ShantiH ShantiH ShantiH"~~~

    May all the worlds be happy. May all the beings be happy.
    May none suffer from grief or sorrow. May peace be to all~~~

    Offline Sai ka Tej

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    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA
    « Reply #2 on: November 03, 2007, 10:34:09 PM »
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    Ashoka The Great

    One of the greatest emperors known to Indian history, Ashoka, was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya and the son of Bindusar. The land he ruled stretched from the Himalayas, Nepal and Kashmir to Mysore in the South. From Afghanistan in the N.E. to the banks of the River Brahmaputra in the East. In the West his territory covered Saurashtra and Junagarh.
     

    Ashoka's Reign

    Born in 294 BC as second son to Bindusar, the King of Patliputra, Ashoka was not heir apparent. After his father died, his elder brother Suman was to take over the reins of the Kingdom. But as most of the ministers found Ashoka more efficient, they helped him attain power.

    Ashoka was a good administrator and at first set about restoring peace in his kingdom. This took about 3 years, after which he formally accepted the throne and was crowned King in 273 BC.  During his reign, the country made progress in terms of science and technology as well as advanced in medicine and surgery. Religion was emphasized and so the people were honest and straightforward and truthful. Stealing was unheard of.

    Ashoka, himself was a great philanthropist and worked day and night for the welfare of his people. He knew exactly what was going on in each part of his vast territory. He would not partake any of his meals until and unless he had fed a thousand Brahmins.
     

    The Kalinga War

    This was the first and last battle that Ashoka ever fought and serves as a watermark in his life as it changed his course forever. It was during this war that he earned the title Ashoka the Great.

    Kalinga was a prosperous little kingdom lying between the river Godavari and Mahanadi, close to the Bay of Bengal. It had an infantry of 60,000 men, 10,000 horsemen and 600 elephants. Ashoka wanted to capture this fertile land, and so had it surrounded. But the brave and loyal people of Kalinga did not want to lose their independence.

    A fierce battle followed, in which there were too many casualties. There were more than a lakh prisoners of war. In the midst of the battlefield, Ashoka stood with the wounded, crippled and the dead all around him. This was the consequence of his greed. A new light dawned on him, and he swore that he would never wage war again.
     

    Ashoka's Conversion

    Ashoka was initiated into Buddhism, after which his life was completely transformed. He religiously followed the principles of Buddhism - that of truth, charity, kindness, purity and goodness.

    He did his bit towards the propagation of this religion by engraving it's principles on pillars throughout his kingdom. The Ashoka pillars, as they are now called, were over 40 feet high and extremely heavy. He also attempted to spread this religion to Syria, Egypt and Macedonia, and sent his son Mahendra and daughter Sangamitra to Sri Lanka for this purpose.

    Ashoka opened charitable hospitals and dispensaries for the welfare of the poor. He planted trees to provide shade and opened inns for the shelter of travelers and laid out green parks and gardens to beautify his kingdom. Wells and tanks were also constructed for the benefit of his people.  He believed in non-violence and so he banned the sacrifice of animals. Besides this he opened clinics for birds and animals too. His good works earned him the name of Devanamapriya Priyadarshi.
     

    Ashoka Chakra

    He died in 232 BC. After doing a great deal of good for his kingdom and the world at large. His fame has spread far and wide. To commemorate his rule and its implications the Government of India has adopted the Ashoka Chakra as its national symbol, which can be seen till today on the national flag.



    SAI RAM
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    Offline Sai ka Tej

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    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA
    « Reply #3 on: November 03, 2007, 10:43:01 PM »
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    Jawaharlal Nehru

    Jawaharlal Nehru is famous for a number of reasons. He was the first Prime Minister of India, as well as the father of the most famous Prime Minister - Indira Gandhi. He was a patriot, a freedom fighter as well as a highly regarded statesman.
     

    Early Influences 

    Born on 14th November 1889, to a famous lawyer of high nobility, Motilal Nehru and his wife Swaroop Rani, Jawaharlal had a good start in life. His father wanted to give him the best education possible and so sent him to Harrow, a boarding school in England, in 1905. Harrow was famous for educating most of the to be Prime ministers of England.

    Nehru then went on to get his M.A. degree from Cambridge University and returned to India as a barrister.  In 1916, he married Kamala Kaul, who supported his patriotism and was a devoted wife in all respects.
     

    Fate Had Other Things In Store

     Even though he had a brilliant academic record, the legal profession did not attract him. Instead, he wanted to join the freedom struggle under the influence of Gandhiji. For a while he was the Chairman of the Allahabad Municipal Committee as a member of the Congress and then he joined the Home Rule League established by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant.

    During the freedom struggle, he courted arrest many a times, and had been jailed 14 years in all. He was elected Congress President 5 times, and it was under his influence in Lahore, that the Congress adopted complete freedom as its goal. In 1947, after India gained its independence, he was automatically elected first Prime Minister.
     

    As India's First Prime Minister

    He headed the Indian government for 17 long and brilliant years. He wanted India to develop into a world - recognised nation. He supported technological and scientific progress and encouraged art and literature. He wanted to eliminate discrimination from the face of the world and encouraged peaceful co-existence.  Nehru did not believe in aligning himself with the military political blocks and wanted to end the cold war. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1955.
     

    Nehru as a Personality

    Not only was he a brilliant orator, a charming, warm and noble thinker and philosopher, but also a fantastic writer. He has written a few wonderful books 'Discovery of India', 'Glimpses of World History' and ' Letters from a father to a daughter''.

    On May 27, 1964, India lost a great influence. In the words of Dr. Radhakrishnan "As a fighter for freedom he was illustrious as a maker of a modern India, his services were unparalleled. His life and works have had a profound influence on our mental make-up, social structure and intellectual development."


    SAIRAM
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    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA
    « Reply #4 on: November 03, 2007, 10:45:52 PM »
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    Indira Gandhi


    Indian history has been witness to only one female Prime Minister - Indira Gandhi. She was the third Prime Minister of India and the daughter of the first - Pandit Jawarharlal Nehru. Her charm, intelligence and charisma made her a powerful statesperson, much loved and admired by her people.
     

    A Politically Charged Childhood

    Born on 19th November 1917, in Allahabad, she was greatly loved by her parents and her grandfather Motilal Nehru, who was a famous lawyer, and a public figure in his own right.

    Her father had joined the freedom struggle, so little Indira, or Priyadarshani as she was lovingly called, was exposed to politics from the age of 3 or 4 years. Her house was the centre of political activity, as all the important leaders stayed there on visiting Allahabad.  Mahatma Gandhi was a frequent visitor to her father's residence and she was greatly affected by his thinking. A visit to the Sabarmati Ashram left an indelible mark on her psyche and she was impressed by the simple, hard life and patriotic feelings that she witnessed there.

    She passed her Metric from Pune University and was then sent on to Shantiniketan, formed by Rabindranath Tagore. Here she was made to lead a strict highly disciplined life. From here she went on to study in Switzerland and then to Oxford University in London.
     

    Her Father's Daughter

    After her return to India she married Feroze Gandhi, in March 1941 much against the wishes of the conservative Hindu community, as he was a Parsee. But Nehru was on her side. When Indira's father was in jail he used to write beautiful, long letters to her about his patriotic feelings and the current political situation. This led her to understand the intricacies of the nation, better than the most. In 1942, she joined the 'Quit India' Movement along with her husband and was arrested and jailed.

    After India gained freedom, Pandit Nehru was elected Prime Minister. After his death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri took over. And then in 1966, Indira Gandhi was elected leader of the Congress.
     

    Her Tenure As Prime Minister

    Indira will be remembered for her commendable efforts in the development and progress of science, space exploration, irrigation, as well as policies like the nationalisation of banks and the 20-point programme.

    But on the other hand, the enormity of the problems she faced was the cause of much heartache. There were problems in Assam, Punjab as well as East Bengal. And in 1971, Pakistan attacked India and forced another smaller partition - the creation of Bangladesh.

    On June 26th, 1975, Mrs. Gandhi declared an emergency, due to the turbulent political situation in the country at that time. Janta Party leaders like J.P. Narayan were arrested and jailed. But Mrs. Gandhi lost out to them in the next election in 1977 and was re-elected to power in 1980.  Later, in Punjab there was a demand for a separate state of Khalistan, and the Sardarji's were up in arms. But their demands were not met and this was the cause of her ultimate assassination.
     

    The End

    On Wednesday, October 31, 1984, when Indira Gandhi was proceeding to her office, she was gunned down by her own bodyguards. This day has gone down in History as national Unity Day, as a tribute to the memory of a Great lady, leader and statesperson.


    SAI RAM
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    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA~~~
    « Reply #5 on: December 07, 2007, 01:17:41 AM »
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    Swami Vivekananda

    India has given birth to a variety of saints and Godmen. People who have achieved salvation through the paths of prayer, action and duty - bhakti, karma and dharma.  Swami Vivekananda, was also a saint. With one major difference. He worked towards the upliftment of his people, and not just towards his own salvation. He was a ' Karmayogi' in the true sense of the word.
     

    Birth of A Saint

    Born in Calcutta, on January 12th, 1863 to Vishwanatha Datta and Bhuvaneshwari, young Narendranath (which he was originally called) was extremely devoted to God. He was also extremely attached to his mother, who had a profound influence on his life. She used to tell him mythological stories, which he loved to hear. He often said that it was his mother who had been the constant inspiration of his work and life.

    He graduated from Christian College, Calcutta. The Principal, Mr. Hastie, was known to have remarked "Narendranath is really a genius. I have traveled far and wide, but I have never come across a lad of his talents and possibilities, even in German Universities among philosophical students. He is bound to make his mark in life".  His interests ranged from sports and music to wrestling, philosophy and poetry. He loved reading Shelley, Wordsworth, Herbert Spencer and John Stuart Mill.
     

    Meeting With Ramakrishna Parmahansa

    Narendra was not interested in worldly pleasures or acquiring possessions. He was looking for something beyond worldly pleasures. His life changed on meeting Sri Ramakrishna, by whose thoughts he was very impressed.

    The second meeting was even more stimulating, as when Sri Ramakrishna touched Narendra with his foot, he was blessed with a divine experience that made him renounce the world and become Swami Vivekananda, Sri Ramakrishna's disciple
     

    His Mission and Work

    Swami Vivekananda traveled the length and breadth of the country, spreading His master's message. His path did not include religious superstitions and rituals, but strived towards a 'region beyond reason'

    In September 1893, Swami Vivekananda participated in 'Parliament of Religions' held in Chicago, U.S.A. He spoke on the Hindu religion and left his audience spellbound. After this, he spread his master's message in Switzerland and England, and had a great following abroad. One of his most famous disciples was Margaret Noble, who later assumed the name of Sister Nivedita.

    Swami Vivekananda wrote several letters expressing his social, religious and spiritual views. His book 'Raja Yoga' is famous till today.  This great exponent of the Vedanta strove to uplift the masses out of their misery. He believed that the neglect of the masses led to the downfall of the nation, and so injected his country with his infectious vitality. Swami Vivekananda also established two monasteries in the name of Sri Ramakrishna. One at Baranagar and the other at Belur, near Calcutta. Till today his work is carried out in these Missions.
     

    The Sad Demise

    Long hours and diabetes won out in the end, and the great Swami passed into the beyond on July 4th, 1902 at his monastery in Belur. But his name and his teachings, as well as that of his master lives on in the hearts and the minds of the masses.

    SAI RAM
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    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA~~~
    « Reply #6 on: December 07, 2007, 01:19:40 AM »
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    Shivaji

    Born in Shivner on April 10, 1627 to Shahji and Jijabai, Shivaji was destined for great things. His father was a nobleman in the court of Bijapur and his mother was a religious Hindu.

    One night Shahji had a dream in which he was offered a mango and asked to share it with his wife in order to get a son. This son was to be an incarnation of Lord Shiva. Shortly after that, a son was born, and so the happy parents named him 'Shivaji' after Lord Shiva.
     

    Move From Shivner To Pune

    When Shivaji's father took another wife, as was a common occurrence in aristocratic families, his self-respecting mother decided to shift to Pune. She took great pains to educate her son and groom him well, and hired a Brahmin teacher, Dada Kondevji, for this task. Together they made him a courageous young man. He had been brought up on Martial Arts and tales of courage and valour. By the age of 13, he had just one dream - to build a kingdom of his own.
     

    Attack On Toran Fort

    At the age of 20 years, he launched his first military attack on Toran fort,  a part of Bijapur territory. He was joined by his three best friends and a few soldiers. It was an easy victory, and made him popular amongst the Maratha youth, who joined his army.  The Nawab of Bijapur put pressure on Shahji to convince his son to appear in court. But Shivaji refused to do so until his demands were met. So the Nawab imprisoned his father.

    Shivaji then asked the Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan to intervene on his behalf. The Emperor, who was waiting for a chance to interfere in Bijapur, at once demanded that Shahji be released. Shivaji had succeeded again. The world was impressed by his physical and mental prowess.

    The Nawab, then sent a giant called Afzal Khan to capture Shivaji. Afzal Khan carried with him an iron cage and entered Shivaji's territory from the south, creating turmoil and plunder along the way. He then sent him a fake message of peace to convince Shivaji to meet him. But Shivaji was wise to his ways, and went prepared for a battle. He had fitted a dagger in his sleeve and steel points in his left hand, with which he tore open Afzal Khan's stomach, and stabbed him in his back, as he was attacked. The army fled in fright and Shivaji went home with trained animals and lots of money.
     

    Auranzeb's Attacks

    Observing Shivaji's reach, Emperor Aurangzeb wanted to protect his territory and so sent his maternal uncle Shayista Khan to teach Shivaji a lesson. The Khan was camping at Pune Fort when, Shivaji's army, dressed as a wedding procession entered and sprung a surprise attack. The Khan fled, but not before losing a thumb.

    The second time Aurangzeb sent two battle-hardened veterans Diler Khan and Raja Jaswant Singh to capture Shivaji. This time Shivaji had to send them a message of peace and was presented in the Mughal Court, where he was insulted and detained.

    While under capture, Shivaji feigned illness and then asked to distribute sweets to celebrate his recovery. Permission was granted. He took this opportunity to hide in a basket of sweets and fruits, and escaped to his own territory, disguised as a sadhu.
     

    Coronation

    Shivaji was crowned King, in the ancient Kshatriya tradition, at his capital Rajgarh. He was given a sacred thread and weighed in coins, which were distributed to the poor. His mother's dreams were fulfilled and she passed away peacefully 2 weeks later.

    Shivaji ruled his kingdom well and after a prosperous few years, fell ill and died on April 3, 1680. He was the first real Maratha leader, and his name has gone down in the annals of history.


    SAI RAM
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    Offline tana

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    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA~~~
    « Reply #7 on: February 11, 2008, 01:14:55 AM »
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    नेताजी सुभाषचन्द्र बोस~~~
     

    जन्म : 23 जनवरी 1897
    मृत्यु : 17 अगस्त 1945

    नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस का जन्म 23 जनवरी 1897 को ओरिसा के कुट्टक गाँव में हुआ। उनके पिता जानकीनाथ बोस वकील थे और उनकी माता का नाम प्रभावती था। 'किसी राष्ट्र के लिए स्वाधीनता सर्वोपरि है।' इस महान मूलमंत्र को शैशव और नवयुवाओं की नसों में प्रवाहित करने, तरुणों की सोई आत्मा को जगाकर देशव्यापी आंदोलन देने और युवा वर्ग की शौर्य शक्ति उद्भासित कर, राष्ट्र के युवकों के लिए आजादी को आत्म-प्रतिष्ठा का प्रश्न बना देने वाले नेताजी सुभाषचंद्र बोस ने स्वाधीनता महासंग्राम के महायज्ञ में प्रमुख पुरोहित की भूमिका निभाई।

    नेताजी ने आत्मविश्वास, भाव प्रवणता, कल्पनाशीलता और नवजागरण के बल पर युवाओं में राष्ट्र के प्रति मुक्ति इतिहास की रचना का मंगल शंखनाद किया। मनुष्य इस संसार में एक निश्चित, निहित उद्देश्य की प्राप्ति, किसी संदेश को प्रचारित करने के लिए जन्म लेता है। जिसकी जितनी शक्ति, आकांक्षा और क्षमता है वह उसी के अनुरूप अपना कर्मक्षेत्र निर्धारित करता है।

    नेताजी के लिए स्वाधीनता 'जीवन-मरण' का प्रश्न बन गया था। बस यही श्रद्धा, यही आत्मविश्वास जिसमें ध्वनित हो वही व्यक्ति वास्तविक सृजक है। नेताजी ने पूर्ण स्वाधीनता को राष्ट्र के युवाओं के सामने एक 'मिशन' के रूप में प्रस्तुत किया। नेताजी ने युवाओं से आह्वान किया कि जो इस मिशन में आस्था रखता है वह सच्चा भारतवासी है। बस उनके इसी आह्वान पर ध्वजा उठाए आजादी के दीवानों की आजाद हिन्द फौज बन गई। 

    उन्होंने अपने भाषण में कहा था विचार व्यक्ति को कार्य करने के लिए धरातल प्रदान करता है। उन्नतिशील, शक्तिशाली जाति और पीढ़ी की उत्पत्ति के लिए हमें बेहतर विचार वाले पथ का आवलम्बन करना होगा, क्योंकि जब विचार महान, साहसपूर्ण और राष्ट्रीयता से ओतप्रोत होंगे तभी हमारा संदेश अंतिम व्यक्ति तक पहुँचेगा।

    आज युवा वर्ग में विचारों की कमी नहीं है। लेकिन इस विचार जगत में क्रांति के लिए एक ऐसे आदर्श को सामने रखना ही होगा जो विद्युत की भाँति हमारी शक्ति, आदर्श और कार्ययोजना को मूर्तरूप दे सके। नेताजी ने युवाओं में स्वाधीनता का अर्थ केवल राष्ट्रीयबंधन से मुक्ति नहीं बल्कि आर्थिक समानता, जाति, भेद, सामाजिक अविचार का निराकरण, सांप्रदायिक संकीर्णता त्यागने का विचार मंत्र भी दिया।

    नेताजी के विचार विश्वव्यापी थे। वे समग्र मानव समाज को उदार बनाने के लिए प्रत्येक जाति को विकसित बनाना चाहते थे। उनका स्पष्ट मानना था जो जाति उन्नति करना नहीं चाहती, विश्व रंगमंच पर विशिष्टता पाना नहीं चाहती, उसे जीवित रहने का कोई अधिकार नहीं।

    नेताजी की आशा के अनुरूप इस जरा जीर्ण होते देश का यौवन लौटाने के लिए प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को आज दृढ़ संकल्प लेना होगा। बढ़ते जातिवाद, गिरते मूल्यों और टूटती परंपराओं, सभ्यताओं को सहेजना होगा। एक व्यापक राष्ट्रीय संगठन की स्थापना करनी होगी, अच्छे और बुरे की प्रचलित धारणा को बदलना होगा।

    नेताजी के इन शब्दों को हमें पुनः दोहराना और स्वीकारना होगा कि 'स्मरण रखें, अपनी समवेत चेष्टा द्वारा हमें भारत में नए शक्ति संपन्न राष्ट्र का निर्माण करना है। पाश्चात्य सभ्यता हमारे समाज में गहराई तक घुसकर धन-जन का संहार कर रही है। हमारा व्यवसाय-वाणिज्य, धर्म-कर्म, शिल्पकला नष्टप्राय हो रहे हैं। इसलिए जीवन के सभी क्षेत्रों में पुनः मृत संजीवनी का संचार करना है। यह संजीवनी कौन लाएगा?

    ऐसे स्वाधीनता महासंग्राम के महायज्ञ में प्रमुख पुरोहित की भूमिका निभाने वाले नेताजी की मृत्यु 17 अगस्त 1945 को बैंकॉक से टोकियो जा रहे विमान दुर्घटना में हुई। लेकिन क्या वर्तमान में मोबाइल, चेटिंग सर्फिंग और एसएमएस में आत्ममुग्ध युवा नेताजी की प्रेरणा पुकार सुनने को तैयार हैं। 
     

    Jai Sai Ram~~~
    "लोका समस्ता सुखिनो भवन्तुः
    ॐ शन्तिः शन्तिः शन्तिः"

    " Loka Samasta Sukino Bhavantu
    Aum ShantiH ShantiH ShantiH"~~~

    May all the worlds be happy. May all the beings be happy.
    May none suffer from grief or sorrow. May peace be to all~~~

    Offline tana

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      • Sai Baba
    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA~~~
    « Reply #8 on: February 15, 2008, 11:28:51 PM »
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    सरोजिनी 'भारत कोकिला' ~~~

    जन्म : 13 फरवरी 1879
    मृत्यु : 2 मार्च 1949


    भारत कोकिला' के नाम से प्रसिद्ध श्रीमती सरोजिनी नायडू का जन्म 13 फरवरी 1879 को हैदराबाद में हुआ था। उनके पिता अघोरनाथ चट्टोपाध्याय एक प्रसिद्ध वैज्ञानिक थे। मात्र चौदह वर्ष की उम्र में सरोजिनी ने सभी अँग्रेजी कवियों की रचनाओं का अध्ययन कर लिया था। 1895 में हैदराबाद के निजाम ने उन्हें वजीफे पर इंग्लैंड भेजा। 1898 में उनका विवाह डॉ. गोविन्द राजालु नायडू से हुआ।

    महात्मा गाँधी से उनकी प्रथम मुलाकात 1914 में लंदन में हुई और गाँधीजी के व्यक्तित्व ने उन्हें बहुत प्रभावित किया। दक्षिण अफ्रीका में वे गाँधीजी की सहयोगी रहीं। वे श्री गोपालकृष्ण गोखले को अपना 'राजनीतिक पिता' मानती थीं। उनके विनोदी स्वभाव के कारण उन्हें 'गाँधीजी के लघु दरबार में विदूषक' कहा जाता था।

    उन्होंने भारतीय समाज में फैली कुरीतियों के लिए भारतीय महिलाओं को जागृत किया। भारत की स्वतंत्रता के लिए विभिन्न आंदोलनों में सहयोग दिया। काफी समय तक वे कांग्रेस की प्रवक्ता रहीं। 1925 में वे भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस के कानपुर अधिवेशन की प्रथम भारतीय महिला अध्यक्ष बनीं। जलियाँवाला बाग हत्याकांड से क्षुब्ध होकर उन्होंने 1908 में मिला 'कैसर-ए-हिन्द' सम्मान लौटा दिया था। भारत छोड़ो आंदोलन में उन्हें आगा खाँ महल में सजा दी गई। वे उत्तरप्रदेश की पहली महिला राज्यपाल बनीं। 

    एक कुशल राजनेता होने के साथ-साथ वे अच्छी लेखिका भी थीं। सिर्फ तेरह वर्ष की उम्र में उन्होंने 1300 पंक्तियों की कविता 'द लेडी ऑफ लेक' लिखी थी। फारसी भाषा में एक नाटक 'मेहर मुनीर' लिखा। 'द बर्ड ऑफ टाइम', 'द ब्रोकन विंग', 'नीलांबुज', ट्रेवलर्स सांग', उनकी प्रकाशित पुस्तकें हैं।

    उन्होंने भारतीय महिलाओं के बारे में कहा था -
    'जब आपको अपना झंडा संभालने के लिए किसी की आवश्यकता हो और जब आप आस्था के अभाव से पीड़ित हों तब भारत की नारी आपका झंडा संभालने और आपकी शक्ति को थामने के लिए आपके साथ होगी और यदि आपको मरना पड़े तो यह याद रखिएगा कि भारत के नारीत्व में चित्तौड़ की पद्मिनी की आस्था समाहित है।' 
     



    Jai Sai Ram~~~
    "लोका समस्ता सुखिनो भवन्तुः
    ॐ शन्तिः शन्तिः शन्तिः"

    " Loka Samasta Sukino Bhavantu
    Aum ShantiH ShantiH ShantiH"~~~

    May all the worlds be happy. May all the beings be happy.
    May none suffer from grief or sorrow. May peace be to all~~~

    Offline tana

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      • Sai Baba
    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA~~~
    « Reply #9 on: March 03, 2008, 06:22:57 AM »
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    अरूंधती राय~~~   
     
    जिसने बनाई पूरी दुनिया में पहचान : अरूंधती राय~~~  
     
    मेरी माँ का कहना था कि मेरी किताब में मैंने उन बातों के बारे में भी लिखा है जो तब हुई थी जब मैं सिर्फ दो साल की थी। मुझे खुद याद नहीं था कि मैं उन घटनाओं के बारे में कैसे लिख गई पर हो सकता है कि वो घटनाएँ मेरे मस्तिष्क में इकट्ठी हों और सही वक्तपर बाहर आ गई हों। हममें से हर किसी को अपने बचपन की ऐसी ही कुछ बातें हमेशा याद रहती हैं।

    मेरा बचपन केरल की वादियों में बीता है। इस जगह के साथ बचपन की जो यादें जुड़ी हैं, वे मुझे आज भी अच्छे से याद हैं। बचपन कैसा भी हो वह अच्छा लगता है। हमारे आस-पास काम करने वाले लोग, हमारे आस-पास के पेड़-पौधे, मिट्टी, जानवर और पक्षी ये सभी को देखने की कोशिश करना चाहिए। इन्हें देखना बड़ा ही अच्छा लगता है और हम हर किसी से कोई न कोई अच्छी बात जरूर सीखते हैं। मेरा बचपन केरल के अयमनम में बीता। यह जगह कोट्टायम से थोड़ी दूरी पर है। मुझे बचपन में उस तरह के स्कूल नहीं जाना पड़ा जहाँ पर सिर्फ कुछ प्रश्न भर याद करके परीक्षा की तैयारी की जाती है। इसके बजाय मैं अपनी मम्मी के स्कूल में जाती थी जिसका नाम था कॉर्पस क्रिस्टी। इस स्कूल में माँ का जोर इसी बात पर था कि मैं चीजों को सिर्फ रटूँ नहीं बल्कि उन्हें सीखूँ और समझूँ। आप क्या करते हैं मुझे पता नहीं पर चीजों को समझना ज्यादा जरूरी है ताकि वे हमें हमेशा याद रहें। अगर हम चीजों को रटते हैं तो थोड़े ही समय में भूल जाते हैं। इसलिए आप भी हमेशा चीजों को याद करने की कोशिश करना।

    दोस्तों, आपने मेरा उपन्यास 'द गॉड ऑफ स्माल थिंग्स' पढ़ा या नहीं। अगर नहीं पढ़ा है तो उसे जरुर पढ़िए। आप जब उस उपन्यास को पढ़ेंगे तो पाएँगे कि उसमें बहुत-सी चीजें मेरे बचपन की हैं। मेरे गाँव में अलग-अलग धर्मों के और अलग-अलग तरह से सोचने वाले लोग रहते थे और मुझे उन सभी को देखने का मौका मिला और इसका जिक्र कहीं न कहीं उपन्यास में भी देखने को मिलता है। खैर, यह तो उपन्यास की बात हुई। कुछ बातें और भी हैं। कुछ लड़कियाँ समझती हैं कि वे लड़कों से कमजोर हैं या उनकी तरह पढ़-लिखकर आगे नहीं बढ़ सकतीं तो उन्हें मैं बताना चाहूँगी कि मैं जब 16 साल की थी तब मैंने अपना घर छोड़ दिया था और दिल्ली आकर रहने लगी थी। यहाँ रहने के लिए मुझे बहुत संघर्ष करना पड़ा। मैंने खाली बोतलें बेचकर अपने लिए पैसे जुटाए और खूब मेहनत की। इसके बाद मैंने मेहनत करतेहुए दिल्ली स्कूल ऑफ आर्किटेक्चर में दाखिला पा लिया। इसके बाद तो जैसे चीजें एक-एक करके सामने आती गईं।

    मैंने जब अपना उपन्यास पूरा किया तो मैंने सोचा कि इसे कौन छापेगा क्योंकि इसमें सिर्फ मेरी अपनी बात है। मेरे अपने खयाल हैं। पर उपन्यास छपा और लोगों ने पसंद भी किया। मुझे इसके लिए बुकर पुरस्कार मिला। बड़ा नाम हुआ। अयमनम की छोटी-सी लड़की पूरी दुनिया में पहचानी गई। यह पुरस्कार मिलने के बाद मैं खाली नहीं बैठी हूँ। बल्कि इधर-उधर खूब घूमती हूँ और लोगों से मिलना-जुलना करती हूँ ताकि दुनिया को ज्यादा से ज्यादा देख सकूँ। दोस्तों आप भी खूब घूमो और चीजों को देखकर समझो। कहीं भी जाने में आलस मत करना वरना हमेशा भोंदू ही रह जाओगे। जाते-जाते आखिरी बात यह कि 24 नवंबर को मेरा जन्मदिन है तो स्पेक्ट्रम के पते पर मुझे चिट्ठी भेजना। 
     
    Jai Sai Ram~~~
    "लोका समस्ता सुखिनो भवन्तुः
    ॐ शन्तिः शन्तिः शन्तिः"

    " Loka Samasta Sukino Bhavantu
    Aum ShantiH ShantiH ShantiH"~~~

    May all the worlds be happy. May all the beings be happy.
    May none suffer from grief or sorrow. May peace be to all~~~

    Offline tana

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    • Blessings 139
    • ~सांई~~ੴ~~सांई~
      • Sai Baba
    Re: GREAT PERSONALITIES OF INDIA~~~
    « Reply #10 on: August 01, 2008, 05:03:29 AM »
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  • Om Sai Ram~~~
     
    राजीव गांधी ~~~
     
    जन्म : 20 अगस्त, 1944
    मृत्यु : 21 मई, 1991


    31 अक्टूबर 84 को उनकी माता इंदिराजी की हत्या के बाद जब पहली बार राजीव गांधी ने प्रधानमंत्री पद की शपथ ली तो वे विश्व के लोकतंत्र के इतिहास में सबसे युवा प्रधानमंत्री थे। 1984 में ही वे इंका अध्यक्ष बने और 21 मई 1991 को नृशंस बम विस्फोट में उनकी हत्या तक वे इस पद को सुशोभित करते रहे।

    राजीव गाँधी का जन्म 20 अगस्त 1944 को मुंबई में हुआ था। भारत को आजाद होने में अभी तीन वर्ष बाकी थे। वे ऐसे प्रधानमंत्री थे जिन्होंने आजादी के उस संघर्ष को नहीं देखा, जिसमें उनके परिवार के अन्य सदस्य शामिल थे। नाना पंडित जवाहरलाल नेहरू उनके जन्म के समय अपनी 9वीं और अंतिम जेल यात्रा पर थे। उनकी माँ इंदिरा गाँधी खुद 15 महीने पहले ही जेल से छूटी थीं और पिता फिरोज गाँधी सिर्फ एक वर्ष पहले जेल से छूटे थे।

    इंदिरा गाँधी के पुत्र और पं. जवाहरलाल नेहरू के नाती होने के कारण बालक राजीव का पालन-पोषण सत्ता के प्रभामंडल के इर्द-गिर्द हुआ। राजनीतियों और वैदेशिक कूटनीतिज्ञों की आवाजाही को करीब से देखने का उन्हें पर्याप्त अवसर मिला था।

    हालाँकि उन्होंने खुद कभी सत्ता के आसपास आने की कल्पना तक नहीं की थी लेकिन संजय गाँधी की मृत्यु के बाद अपनी माँ इंदिरा गाँधी को राजनीतिक सहारा देने के लिए राजीव गाँधी को अनिच्छा से भारतीय राजनीति में आना पड़ा। फिर एक दिन ऐसा भी आया कि माँ की मृत्यु के बाद उन्हें खुद भी सक्रिय राजनीति में आकर सलीब पर चढ़ना ही पड़ा।

    स्व. राजीव गाँधी ऐसे युवा प्रधानमंत्री थे जिन्होंने समाज के सभी वर्गों के लोगों को अत्यधिक प्रभावित किया था। इस राजनीतिक सफलता-कुशलता का कारण यह था कि राजीव गाँधी को अपने पिता फिरोज गाँधी से 'अपना काम खुद करो' की प्रेरणा मिली थी।

    राजीवजी कहते थे कि उनको अपने नाना पंडित नेहरू से 'आराम हराम है' तथा पिता फिरोज गाँधी ने 'श्रम की महत्ता और बिना झिझक के सच बोलने' की प्रेरणा मिली थी। अपने पिता से ही उन्होंने पाश्चात्य शास्त्रीय संगीत का शौक पाया था जबकि इसके पहले उनकी माँ का सोचना था कि नेहरू लोग संगीत प्रेमी नहीं होते।

    कैम्ब्रिज में जहाँ राजीव पढ़े थे, वहाँ वे बहुत खामोशी से रहे तथा यह भी पता नहीं चलता था कि वे प्रधानमंत्री के पुत्र हैं। एक बार तो जानकारी लेने पर उन्हें यह बताना पड़ा था कि महात्मा गाँधी से उनका कोई रिश्ता नहीं है। बिना यह बताए कि वे पंडित नेहरू के नाती हैं। दूसरे विद्यार्थियों की तरह कभी-कभी उन्हें भी पैसों की तंगी से गुजरना पड़ जाता था। अपनी छुट्टियों के दौरान उन्हें फल चुनने, आइस्क्रीम बेचने, ट्रक लोड करवाने तथा बेकरी में नाइट शिफ्ट में काम करना पड़ जाता था।

    वह अक्टूबर 1984 का अंतिम दिन था। दिल्ली चुनाव से पूर्व के वातावरण में डूबी हुई थी। इंदिरा गाँधी ने दो महीनों के भीतर आम चुनाव करवाने का मन बना लिया था। उस समय उन्हें टीवी के लिए एक इंटरव्यू देना था। जैसे ही वे 1, सफदरजंग रोड स्थित अपने आवास से 1, अकबर रोड स्थित कार्यालय के लिए निकलीं, उनके सुरक्षाकर्मियों ने उन पर गोलियाँ चला दीं।

    अचेतन अवस्था में और क्षत-विक्षत रूप से उन्हें आर.के. धवन और सोनिया गाँधी द्वारा कार से अखिल भारतीय आयुर्विज्ञान संस्थान ले जाया गया लेकिन उन्हें बचाया नहीं जा सका। उसी दिन शाम को राजीवजी को प्रधानमंत्री पद की शपथ दिलाई गई।

    वे विश्व के लोकतंत्र के इतिहास में सबसे युवा प्रधानमंत्री थे। 1984 में ही वे इंका अध्यक्ष बने' हालाँकि राजीव गाँधी को सत्ता का कोई प्रत्यक्ष अनुभव नहीं था, फिर भी उन्हें अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से गहरे अनुभव प्राप्त थे। इंदिरा गाँधी के निधन के तेरहवें दिन जैसी कि उनकी इच्छा थी हिमालय पर उनकी भस्मी उनके पुत्र द्वारा बिखेर दी गई।

    उसी दिन राजीव गाँधी ने रेडियो और टेलीविजन पर राष्ट्र के नाम संदेश दिया। यह उनका पहला नीतिगत संबोधन था जो कि विज्ञान, टेक्नॉलाजी और राष्ट्र के स्वाभिमान को व्यक्त करता था। इस भाषण में राजीव गाँधी के शासन का मूलमंत्र इस प्रकार प्रकट हुआ- 'एक साथ मिलकर हमें एक ऐसा भारत बनाना है जो इक्कीसवीं सदी का आधुनिक भारत बने।' 21 मई 1991 को नृशंस बम विस्फोट में उनकी हत्या कर दी गई। 
     
     
    Jai Sai Ram~~~
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    Aum ShantiH ShantiH ShantiH"~~~

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